Notfälle in der Allergologie

Translated title of the contribution: Allergic emergencies

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Both anaphylactic reactions and angioedema in the head and neck area can be life-threatening and require emergency treatment. Therapy needed is primarily directed by the patient’s symptoms. The first measures taken should consist of immediate disruption of the allergen contact, adequate positioning of the patient, the insertion of an intravenous catheter and an emergency call. In case of cardiovascular or respiratory involvement, intramuscular ± inhalative adrenalin is the treatment of choice. In case of cardiovascular involvement, volume substitution by intravenous catheter and oxygen administration are crucial and in lower airway obstruction, additionally short-acting beta mimetics should be inhaled. Intravenous H1-antihistamines and glucocorticoids are added. Allergic reaction confined to the skin and mucosal surfaces without respiratory involvement or to the gastrointestinal tract should also be treated with intravenous H1-antihistamines and glucocorticoids. Angioedema in the head and neck area can, however, also be associated with a life-threatening upper airway obstruction. Histamine-induced angioedema should be treated as anaphylaxis involving the upper respiratory tract. In hereditary angioedema, or in unclassified angioedema unresponsive to therapy, early airway maintenance and subcutaneous injection of bradykinin-receptor antagonist icatibant, intravenous injection of C1-inhibitor concentrate or fresh frozen plasma is recommended. The same approach should be taken for severe angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema with dyspnea. Intubation by skilled personal is indicated in inspiratory stridor and dyspnea at rest. In all cases of anaphylaxis or angioemdema, patients should be surveyed until a safe remission is achieved.

Translated title of the contributionAllergic emergencies
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)352-363
Number of pages12
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2018
Externally publishedYes


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