New aspects on the formation and analysis of acrylamide

Peter Schieberle, Peter Köhler, Michael Granvogl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


The effectiveness of different compounds in the generation of acrylamide (AA) from asparagine, was determined by reacting asparagine with mono-, di- and polysaccharides, as well as four different oxo-compounds known to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism/degradation. Quantitation of AA formed either under aqueous conditions or in low water model systems revealed glucose and 2-oxopropionic acid as the most effective compounds in AA generation, when reacted in model systems with a low water content (about 1 mol-% yield). Interestingly, heating of asparagine in the presence of 2-oxopropionic acid generated quite high amounts of 3-aminopropionamide (3-APA), which itself effectively generated AA upon heating in aqueous solution, as well as in low water systems. Because this is the first report on amounts of 3-APA generated by Maillard-type reactions, the general role of 3-APA as key intermediate in AA formation is discussed in detail. In addition, first results on the development and application of an HPLC/fluorescence method for AA quantitation are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-222
Number of pages18
JournalAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
StatePublished - 2005


  • 3-aminopropionamide
  • Acrylamide
  • Formation
  • HPLC/fluorescence; analysis


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