Multistage Mechanism of Lithium Intercalation into Graphite Anodes in the Presence of the Solid Electrolyte Interface

Franz Dinkelacker, Philipp Marzak, Jeongsik Yun, Yunchang Liang, Aliaksandr S. Bandarenka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

A so-called solid electrolyte interface (SEI) in a lithium-ion battery largely determines the performance of the whole system. However, it is one of the least understood objects in these types of batteries. SEIs are formed during the initial charge-discharge cycles, prevent the organic electrolytes from further decomposition, and at the same time govern lithium intercalation into the graphite anodes. In this work, we use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy to investigate the properties of a SEI film and an electrified "graphite/SEI/electrolyte interface". We reveal a multistage mechanism of lithium intercalation and de-intercalation in the case of graphite anodes covered by SEI. On the basis of this mechanism, we propose a relatively simple model, which perfectly explains the impedance response of the "graphite/SEI/electrolyte" interface at different temperatures and states of charge. From the whole data obtained in this work, it is suggested that not only Li+ but also negatively charged species, such as anions from the electrolyte or functional groups of the SEI, likely interact with the surface of the graphite anode.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14063-14069
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume10
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - 25 Apr 2018

Keywords

  • SEI thickness
  • electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • graphite anodes
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • solid electrolyte interface
  • three-stage mechanism

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