Multiphysics Footprint of Li Plating for Li-Ion Battery and Challenges for High-Accuracy Detection

Zhe Li, Ruqing Fang, Hao Ge, Zhongxiao Liu, Franz B. Spingler, Andreas Jossen, Jianbo Zhang, Boryann Liaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Lithium plating on the negative electrode of Li-ion batteries remains as a great concern for durability, reliability and safety in operation under low temperatures and fast charging conditions. High-accuracy detection of Li-plating is critically needed for field operations. To detect the lithium plating is to track its multiphysics footprint since lithium plating often is a localized event while the driving force from chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical origins could vary with time and locality which makes the detection and characterization challenging. Here, we summarize the multiphysical footprints of lithium plating and the corresponding state-of-the-art detection methods. By assessing and comparing these methods, the combination of capacity/voltage differential, R-Q mapping and Arrhenius outlier tracking could be promising and effective for battery diagnosis, prognosis and management. We analyze the origins of quantitative error in sample preparation, overly simplified assumption and dynamic evolution of the plated Li, and recommend the in situ and quantitative chemical analysis method, such as in situ NMR, EPR, X-ray and neutron. In addition, we propose the four conjectures on the capacity plunge, lithium plating, pore clogging, electrolyte drainage and rapid SEI growth, can be aligned and unified to one scenario basically triggered by lithium plating.

Original languageEnglish
Article number080530
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


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