Multimodal Ultrasonographic Pathway of Parotid Gland Lesions

Naglaa Mansour, Murat Bas, Konrad Friedrich Stock, Ulrich Strassen, Benedikt Hofauer, Andreas Knopf

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45 Scopus citations


Purpose To evaluate a multimodal pathway in solitary circumscribed parotid gland lesions (PL) to predict tumor dignity and to avoid repeat surgery. Materials and Methods 202 patients with PL underwent medical history, clinical examination, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound (US), real-time sonoelastography (RTE), color-coded duplex sonography (CDS), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Malignancy was suspected when: 1. patients reported on previous cutaneous head and neck (H&N) malignancy; 2. patients presented synchronous cutaneous H&N malignancy and/or facial palsy; 3. US visualized poorly defined tumor borders and/or pathological cervical lymph nodes; 4. PL showed poor vascularization in CDS with enhanced perfusion kinetics in CEUS; 5. PL showed moderate/strong vascularization with delayed perfusion kinetics. Intraoperative frozen section was performed in PLs suspicious for malignancy, and surgery was extended when malignancy was confirmed. The sensitivity, specificity, negative, and positive predictive values (NPV/PPV) were calculated. Results Histology revealed 170 benign and 32 malignant PLs. Medical history, clinical examination, and B-mode US identified malignancy with a sensitivity/specificity of 77 %/98 %. After application of CDS and CEUS in the multimodal pathway, the sensitivity of malignant tumors increased to 91 %. The decreased specificity (81 %) was equalized by intraoperative frozen section (PPV 48 %, NPV 98 %). After application of the multimodal pathway, only 1 patient underwent repeat surgery. Conclusion The multimodal pathway is a useful method to predict dignity in PLs and reduces the number of repeat surgeries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-173
Number of pages8
JournalUltraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • color-coded duplex sonography
  • contrast-enhanced ultrasound
  • elastography
  • salivary glands
  • ultrasound


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