Modal properties of long-wavelength tunable MEMS-VCSELs with curved mirrors: Comparison of experiment and modeling

Pierluigi Debernardi, Benjamin Kögel, Karolina Zogal, Peter Meissner, Markus Maute, Markus Ortsiefer, Gerhard Böhm, Markus Christian Amann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations

Abstract

The effective interplay of simulation and experimental results for analysis and optimization of microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating at wavelength around 1.55 mum is presented. The VCSEL combines a MEMS with concave Al-GaAs-GaAs mirror membrane and an InP-based active cavity with tunnel junction aperture in a hybrid two-chip assembly. Using electrothermal MEMS actuation the included air-gap can be expanded and the cavity resonance can be tuned to longer wavelengths. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical results provided by VELM (VCSEL ELectroMagnetic), the efficient code based on the coupled mode model and adapted for the first time to handle curved-mirror geometries. The vectorial code is found to be able to fully reproduce the experimental results, such as device tuning range, modal frequency splitting, threshold gains and modal selectivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-399
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
Volume44
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008

Keywords

  • Bragg mirrors
  • Electromagnetic theory
  • MEMS
  • Tunable lasers
  • Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)

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