Milk-Derived Amadori Products in Feces of Formula-Fed Infants

Nina Sillner, Alesia Walker, Daniel Hemmler, Monika Bazanella, Silke S. Heinzmann, Dirk Haller, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Food processing of infant formula alters chemical structures, including the formation of Maillard reaction products between proteins and sugars. We detected early Maillard reaction products, so-called Amadori products, in stool samples of formula-fed infants. In total, four Amadori products (N-deoxylactulosyllysine, N-deoxyfructosyllysine, N-deoxylactulosylleucylisoleucine, N-deoxyfructosylleucylisoleucine) were identified by a combination of complementary nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approaches. Chemical structures were confirmed by preparation and isolation of reference compounds, LC-MS/MS, and NMR. The leucylisoleucine Amadori compounds, which most likely originate from β-lactoglobulin, were excreted throughout the first year of life in feces of formula-fed infants but were absent in feces of breastfed infants. Despite high inter- and intraindividual differences of Amadori products in the infants' stool, solid food introduction resulted in a continuous decrease, proving infant formula as the major source of the excreted Amadori products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8061-8069
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Volume67
Issue number28
DOIs
StatePublished - 17 Jun 2019

Keywords

  • Amadori products
  • Maillard reaction
  • fructosyllysine
  • infant formula
  • metabolomics
  • milk marker

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