Microbiota dynamics and volatile compounds in lupine based Moromi fermented at different salt concentrations

Rebekka H. Lülf, Rudi F. Vogel, Matthias A. Ehrmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Fermented soy sauces are used as food seasonings in Eastern countries and all over the world. Depending on their cultural origins, their production differs in parameters such as wheat addition, temperature, and salt concentration. The fermentation of lupine seeds presents an alternative to the use of soybeans; however, the microbiota and influencing factors are currently unknown. In this study, we analyse the microbiota of lupine Moromi (mash) fermentations for a period of six months and determine the influence of different salt concentrations on the microbiota dynamics and the volatile compound composition. Cultured microorganisms were identified by protein profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing provided an overview of the microbiota including non-cultured bacteria. The volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). At all salt concentrations, we found that Tetragenococcus halophilus (up to 1.4 × 109 colony forming units (CFU)/mL on day 21) and Chromohalobacter japonicus (1.9 × 109 CFU/mL, day 28) were the dominating bacteria during Moromi fermentation. Debaryomyces hansenii (3.6 × 108 CFU/mL, day 42) and Candida guilliermondii (2.2 × 108 CFU/mL, day 2) were found to be the most prevalent yeast species. Interestingly, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and other yeasts described as typical for soy Moromi were not found. With increasing salinity, we found lower diversity in the microbiota, the prevalence-gain of typical species was delayed, and ratios differed depending on their halo- or acid tolerance. GC–MS analysis revealed aroma-active compounds, such as pyrazines, acids, and some furanones, which were mostly different from the aroma compounds found in soy sauce. The absence of wheat may have caused a change in yeast microbiota, and the use of lupine seeds may have led to the differing aromatic composition. Salt reduction resulted in a more complex microbiome, higher cell counts, and did not show any spoiling organisms. With these findings, we show that seasoning sauce that uses lupine seeds as the sole substrate is a suitable gluten-free, soy-free and salt reduced alternative to common soy sauces with a unique flavour.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109316
JournalInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
StatePublished - 16 Sep 2021


  • Lupine seed
  • Moromi microbiota
  • Salt reduction
  • Soy sauce alternative


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