Metallurgical infrastructure and technology criticality: the link between photovoltaics, sustainability, and the metals industry

Neill Bartie, Lucero Cobos-Becerra, Magnus Fröhling, Rutger Schlatmann, Markus Reuter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Various high-purity metals endow renewable energy technologies with specific functionalities. These become heavily intertwined in products, complicating end-of-life treatment. To counteract downcycling and resource depletion, maximising both quantities and qualities of materials recovered during production and recycling processes should be prioritised in the pursuit of sustainable circular economy. To do this well requires metallurgical infrastructure systems that maximise resource efficiency.To illustrate the concept, digital twins of two photovoltaic (PV) module technologies were created using process simulation. The models comprise integrated metallurgical systems that produce, among others, cadmium, tellurium, zinc, copper, and silicon, all of which are required for PV modules. System-wide resource efficiency, environmental impacts, and technoeconomic performance were assessed using exergy analysis, life cycle assessment, and cost models, respectively. High-detail simulation of complete life cycles allows for the system-wide effects of various production, recycling, and residue exchange scenarios to be evaluated to maximise overall sustainability and simplify the distribution of impacts in multiple-output production systems. This paper expands on previous studies and demonstrates the key importance of metallurgy in achieving Circular Economy, not only by means of reactors, but via systems and complete supply chains—not only the criticality of elements, but also the criticality of available metallurgical processing and other infrastructure in the supply chain should be addressed. The important role of energy grid compositions, and the resulting location-based variations in supply chain footprints, in maximising energy output per unit of embodied carbon footprint for complete systems is highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-519
Number of pages17
JournalMineral Economics
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • CdTe and Silicon photovoltaics
  • Circular economy
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • Process simulation
  • Sustainability
  • Technoeconomics


Dive into the research topics of 'Metallurgical infrastructure and technology criticality: the link between photovoltaics, sustainability, and the metals industry'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this