Metabolite profiling of colored rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains

Thomas Frank, Bastian Reichardt, Qingyao Shu, Karl Heinz Engel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


HPLC analysis of dehulled red, black and non-colored indica and japonica rice subspecies revealed significant differences in the contents of the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside. The rice materials were subjected to a comparative capillary gas chromatography-based metabolite profiling approach. The employed extraction and fractionation protocol enables the analysis of a broad spectrum of lipophilic and hydrophilic low molecular weight constituents from different chemical classes. The method covers not only primary metabolites (e.g. sugars, fatty acids) but also nutritionally relevant constituents (e.g. α-tocopherol, γ-aminobutyric acid). Statistical assessment of the data via principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed a distinct grouping of the different colored rice subspecies on the basis of their metabolite profiles. Compared to non-colored and red rice, black rice exhibited, in particular, higher levels of fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, organic acids and amino acids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-119
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Anthocyanins
  • Black rice
  • Colored seeds
  • Gas chromatography
  • Metabolite profiling
  • Red rice


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