MemPol: Policing Core Memory Bandwidth from Outside of the Cores

Alexander Zuepke, Andrea Bastoni, Weifan Chen, Marco Caccamo, Renato Mancuso

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

In today's multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip (MP- SoC), the shared memory subsystem is a known source of temporal interference. The problem causes logically independent cores to affect each other's performance, leading to pessimistic worstcase execution time (WCET) analysis. One of the most practical techniques to mitigate interference is memory regulation via throttling. Traditional regulation schemes rely on a combination of timer and performance counter interrupts to be delivered and processed on the same cores running real-time workload. Unfortunately, to prevent excessive overhead, regulation can only be enforced at a millisecond-scale granularity. In this work, we present a novel regulation mechanism from outside the cores that monitors performance counters for the application core's activity in main memory at a microsecond scale. The approach is fully transparent to the applications on the cores, and can be implemented using widely available onchip debug facilities. The presented mechanism also allows more complex composition of metrics to enact load-aware regulation. For instance, it allows redistributing unused bandwidth between cores while keeping the overall memory bandwidth of all cores below a given threshold. We implement our approach on a host of embedded platforms and carry out an in-depth evaluation on the Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ZCUl02 platform using the SD-VBS.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 29th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS 2023
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages235-248
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9798350321760
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023
Event29th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS 2023 - San Antonio, United States
Duration: 9 May 202312 May 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of the IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS
Volume2023-May
ISSN (Print)1545-3421

Conference

Conference29th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Antonio
Period9/05/2312/05/23

Keywords

  • memory bandwidth regulation
  • multi-core
  • real-time system
  • temporal isolation

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