Memory Utilization-Based Dynamic Bandwidth Regulation for Temporal Isolation in Multi-Cores

Ahsan Saeed, Dakshina Dasari, Dirk Ziegenbein, Varun Rajasekaran, Falk Rehm, Michael Pressler, Arne Hamann, Daniel Mueller-Gritschneder, Andreas Gerstlauer, Ulf Schlichtmann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Temporal isolation is one of the key challenges for co-running mixed-criticality applications on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) multi-core platforms. In particular, the main memory subsystem is one of the most prominent causes of interference and loss of isolation. Existing mechanisms for memory bandwidth regulation are limited to conservative bandwidth reservation, use pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) estimations or require dedicated hardware that is not feasible in COTS multi-core platforms.In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for memory interference control that uses feedback-based control to dynamically regulate memory accesses of individual cores in a multicore platform. Our mechanism directly regulates the source of interference by leveraging information about memory utilization, acquired from existing hardware performance counters provided by modern COTS-based memory controllers. The proposed solution is implemented on Linux as a loadable kernel module. The results of evaluating our approach with real and synthetic benchmarks on a COTS multi-core (NXP S32V234) platform demonstrate that it is able to provide temporal isolation with up to 4x and 2x more overall throughput for non-real-time applications compared to static and dynamic memory bandwidth-based regulation approaches, respectively, while maintaining guarantees for applications running on the real-time core.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 28th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS 2022
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages133-145
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9781665499989
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022
Event28th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS 2022 - Milan, Italy
Duration: 4 May 20226 May 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of the IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS
Volume2022-May
ISSN (Print)1545-3421

Conference

Conference28th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, RTAS 2022
Country/TerritoryItaly
CityMilan
Period4/05/226/05/22

Keywords

  • feedback control
  • memory bandwidth regulation
  • multi-core
  • real-time system
  • temporal isolation

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Memory Utilization-Based Dynamic Bandwidth Regulation for Temporal Isolation in Multi-Cores'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this