Mechanistic calendar aging model for lithium-ion batteries

Alexander Karger, Julius Schmitt, Cedric Kirst, Jan P. Singer, Leo Wildfeuer, Andreas Jossen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


In this work we present a novel mechanistic calendar aging model for a commercial lithium-ion cell with NCA cathode and silicon-graphite anode. The mechanistic calendar aging model is a semi-empirical aging model that is parameterized on component states of health, instead of capacity. Three component states of health are derived from the degradation modes, which are calculated by fitting the electrode potential curves at every check-up measurement. The aging data used for model parameterization spans 672days of storage at 27 different combinations of ambient temperature (Tamb) and state of charge (SOC). To compensate for the influence of the check-up measurements on cell degradation, the aging data is pre-processed in two steps, considering immediate degradation caused by the check-up cycles and accelerated degradation during subsequent storage. The loss of active anode material is negligible during check-up-compensated calendar aging. For loss of lithium inventory and loss of active cathode material, Tafel and Arrhenius terms are successfully used to model Tamb and SOC dependence. The mechanistic calendar aging model predicts the capacity with <1% mean deviation for 7 different storage conditions after 672days without check-ups. The check-up compensation increases predicted lifetime by >150% for exemplary storage at Tamb=60°C and SOC=50%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number233208
JournalJournal of Power Sources
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2023


  • Calendar aging
  • Check-up measurement
  • Degradation modes
  • Half-cell fitting
  • OCV aging
  • Semi-empirical model


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