Looking beyond the mean: Drivers of variability in postfire stand development of conifers in Greater Yellowstone

Kristin H. Braziunas, Winslow D. Hansen, Rupert Seidl, Werner Rammer, Monica G. Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


High-severity, infrequent fires in forests shape landscape mosaics of stand age and structure for decades to centuries, and forest structure can vary substantially even among same-aged stands. This variability among stand structures can affect landscape-scale carbon and nitrogen cycling, wildlife habitat availability, and vulnerability to subsequent disturbances. We used an individual-based forest process model (iLand) to ask: Over 300 years of postfire stand development, how does variation in early regeneration densities versus abiotic conditions influence among-stand structural variability for four conifer species widespread in western North America? We parameterized iLand for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Greater Yellowstone (USA). Simulations were initialized with field data on regeneration following stand-replacing fires, and stand development was simulated under historical climatic conditions without further disturbance. Stand structure was characterized by stand density and basal area. Stands became more similar in structure as time since fire increased. Basal area converged more rapidly among stands than tree density for Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, but not for subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce. For all species, regeneration-driven variation in stand density persisted for at least 99 years postfire, and for lodgepole pine, early regeneration densities dictated among-stand variation for 217 years. Over time, stands shifted from competition-driven convergence to environment-driven divergence, in which variability among stands was maintained or increased. The relative importance of drivers of stand structural variability differed between density and basal area and among species due to differential species traits, growth rates, and sensitivity to intraspecific competition versus abiotic conditions. Understanding dynamics of postfire stand development is increasingly important for anticipating future landscape patterns as fire activity increases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)460-471
Number of pages12
JournalForest Ecology and Management
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Forest development
  • Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
  • Process-based modeling
  • Stand structure
  • Variability
  • Wildfire


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