Locoregional Anaesthesia and Intra-Operative Angiography in Carotid Endarterectomy: 16 Year Results of a Consecutive Single Centre Series

for the Munich carotid investigation group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The benefit of local (LA) over general (GA) anaesthesia and the rationale of intra-operative imaging strategies during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is debated. This study analysed the associations between patient characteristics, LA, and intra-operative imaging strategies and the in hospital stroke and death rates in elective CEA over a 16 year period. Methods: All consecutive patients treated by elective CEA between January 2004 and December 2019 (n = 1 872; median age 71 years, 70% male, 37% symptomatic) were included. All patients were assessed neurologically before and within 48 hours after CEA. The primary outcome event was the combined rate of any in hospital stroke or death. Secondary outcome events were the combined rates of any in hospital major stroke (modified Rankin scale [mRS] 3 – 5) or death, stroke, minor stroke (mRS 0 – 2), major stroke, and death alone. To detect changes over time, four quartiles (2004 – 2007, 2008 – 2011, 2012 – 2015, and 2016 – 2019) of this cohort were analysed. Statistical analysis comprised trend tests, and uni- and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Median patient age increased from 68 to 73 years (p < .001). Over time, LA (from 28% to 91%) and intra-operative imaging (angiography 2.8 – 98.1%, duplex ultrasound 0 – 78.2%) was applied more frequently. Surgical techniques did not change. The in hospital stroke or death and major stroke or death rates decreased from 3.7% to 1.5% (p = .041) and from 2.8% to 0.9% (p = .014), respectively, corresponding to a relative risk of decline of 7% and 12% annually. Multivariable analysis revealed that LA (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1 – 0.62) and intra-operative angiography (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.10 – 0.81) were associated with lower in hospital major stroke and death rates. Conclusion: These data demonstrate a decline in the combined rates of any in hospital major stroke or death after non-emergency CEA over time. Locoregional anaesthesia and intra-operative quality control were associated with these improvements and might be worthwhile in elective CEA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-232
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Volume65
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Carotid endarterectomy
  • Carotid stenosis
  • Intra-operative quality control
  • Local anaesthesia
  • Peri-operative stroke and death

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