Liquid-Vapor Coexistence and Spontaneous Evaporation at Atmospheric Pressure of Common Rigid Three-Point Water Models in Molecular Simulations

Patrick K. Quoika, Martin Zacharias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to investigate molecular systems at atomic resolution including biomolecular structures, drug-receptor interactions, and novel materials. Frequently, MD simulations are performed in an aqueous solution with explicit models of water molecules. Commonly, such models are parameterized to reproduce the liquid phase of water under ambient conditions. However, often, simulations at significantly higher temperatures are also of interest. Hence, it is important to investigate the equilibrium of the liquid and vapor phases of molecular models of water at elevated temperatures. Here, we evaluate the behavior of 11 common rigid three-point water models over a wide range of temperatures. From liquid-vapor coexistence simulations, we estimated the critical points and studied the spontaneous evaporation of these water models. Moreover, we investigated the influence of the system size, choice of the pressure-coupling algorithm, and rate of heating on the process and compared them with the experimental data. We found that modern rigid three-point water models reproduce the critical point surprisingly well. Furthermore, we discovered that the critical temperature correlates with the quadrupole moment of the respective water model. This indicates that the spatial arrangement of the partial charges is important for reproducing the liquid-vapor phase transition. Our findings may guide the selection of water models for simulations conducted at high temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2457-2468
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume128
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 14 Mar 2024
Externally publishedYes

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