Leigh syndrome is the main clinical characteristic of PTCD3 deficiency

Gerard Muñoz-Pujol, Juan D. Ortigoza-Escobar, Abraham J. Paredes-Fuentes, Cristina Jou, Olatz Ugarteburu, Laura Gort, Delia Yubero, Angels García-Cazorla, Mar O'Callaghan, Jaume Campistol, Jordi Muchart, Vicente A. Yépez, Mirjana Gusic, Julien Gagneur, Holger Prokisch, Rafael Artuch, Antonia Ribes, Roser Urreizti, Frederic Tort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mitochondrial translation defects are a continuously growing group of disorders showing a large variety of clinical symptoms including a wide range of neurological abnormalities. To date, mutations in PTCD3, encoding a component of the mitochondrial ribosome, have only been reported in a single individual with clinical evidence of Leigh syndrome. Here, we describe three additional PTCD3 individuals from two unrelated families, broadening the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of this disorder, and provide definitive evidence that PTCD3 deficiency is associated with Leigh syndrome. The patients presented in the first months of life with psychomotor delay, respiratory insufficiency and feeding difficulties. The neurologic phenotype included dystonia, optic atrophy, nystagmus and tonic–clonic seizures. Brain MRI showed optic nerve atrophy and thalamic changes, consistent with Leigh syndrome. WES and RNA-seq identified compound heterozygous variants in PTCD3 in both families: c.[1453-1G>C];[1918C>G] and c.[710del];[902C>T]. The functional consequences of the identified variants were determined by a comprehensive characterization of the mitochondrial function. PTCD3 protein levels were significantly reduced in patient fibroblasts and, consistent with a mitochondrial translation defect, a severe reduction in the steady state levels of complexes I and IV subunits was detected. Accordingly, the activity of these complexes was also low, and high-resolution respirometry showed a significant decrease in the mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Functional complementation studies demonstrated the pathogenic effect of the identified variants since the expression of wild-type PTCD3 in immortalized fibroblasts restored the steady-state levels of complexes I and IV subunits as well as the mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Additionally, minigene assays demonstrated that three of the identified variants were pathogenic by altering PTCD3 mRNA processing. The fourth variant was a frameshift leading to a truncated protein. In summary, we provide evidence of PTCD3 involvement in human disease confirming that PTCD3 deficiency is definitively associated with Leigh syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13134
JournalBrain Pathology
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • Leigh syndrome
  • PTCD3
  • mitochondria
  • mitochondrial disorder
  • mitochondrial translation

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