InP-based long-wavelength VCSELs and VCSEL arrays

Markus Christian Amann, Werner Hofmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations


Long-wavelength, InP-based, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with buried tunnel junction (LW-BTJ-VCSELs) and VCSEL arrays are presented. Emitting at the telecommunications wavelengths around 1.3 and 1.55 μm, these devices show high modulation bandwidth in excess of 10 GHz over a wide temperature range. Small-signal equivalent circuits for the parasitic and intrinsic response are given. Various data-transmission experiments are performed with data rates up to 12.5 Gb/s over different fiber channels. 1-D LW-BTJ-VCSEL arrays can be used in wavelength-division multiplexing systems for high bandwidth per fiber channel. 2-D high-speed arrays with 64 individually addressable channels are presented that are particularly suited for optical ultrabroadband interconnects. Furthermore, large-scale arrays are investigated for high-power applications. In a detailed investigation, we derive scaling rules considering the influence of aperture, array size, and pitch on laser power. At room temperature, optical output powers in the watt regime have been realized at 1.55μm. Divergence angles are as low as 13°-17° full-width at half-maximum. Wall plug efficiencies in excess of 20 over a wide current range and high-temperature operation up to 80°C are obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4838880
Pages (from-to)861-868
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2009


  • Direct modulation
  • Frequency response
  • High-power laser
  • InP
  • Laser arrays
  • Semiconductor lasers
  • Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)


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