Inflammatory reactions induced by pretransplant conditioning—An alternative target for modulation of acute GvHD and Complications following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation?

E. Holler, B. Ertl, R. Hintermeier-Knabe, M. G. Roncarolo, G. Eissner, F. Mayer, U. Behrends, P. Fraunberger, W. Pfannes, H. J. Kolb, W. Wilmanns

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations

Abstract

Intensity of pretransplant conditioning has been closely correlated with regimen related toxicity in patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In this review, we summarize evidence for a direct link between inflammatory reactions induced by irradiation and cytotoxic treatment and occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) as well as endothelial complications: In our studies, de novo release of TNFalpha during conditioning was associated with an increased risk of severe GvHD and mortality following BMT, whereas increased spontaneous production of IL-10, an endogenous TNF-antagonist, prior to conditioning protected from these complications. Immunogenetic differences in cytokine regulation and costimulation by endotoxin proved to be important cofactors determining the extent of inflammatory cytokine release in individual patients. Pathophysiological relevance of these findings seems to be confirmed by experimental as well as first clinical trials using TNF-antibodies and related antagonists during pretransplant conditioning. Preclinical experiments suggest additional, cytokine independent inflammatory reactions induced by irradiation such as expression of ICAM-1 and endothelial cell apoptosis. Although the exact impact of these findings on pathophysiology of BMT related complications needs further clarification by future studies, conditioning related inflammation as a first crucial step in induction of GvHD and complications has to be considered when designing new protocols for preparation of patients for allogeneic BMT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-224
Number of pages8
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Volume25
Issue number42067
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Conditioning regimens
  • acute GvHD
  • allogeneic BMT
  • cytokine antagonists
  • proinflammatory cytokines

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