TY - JOUR

T1 - Indexing moiré patterns of metal-supported graphene and related systems

T2 - Strategies and pitfalls

AU - Zeller, Patrick

AU - Ma, Xinzhou

AU - Günther, Sebastian

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

PY - 2017/1

Y1 - 2017/1

N2 - Wereport on strategies forcharacterizing hexagonal coincidence phases by analyzing the involved spatial moiré beating frequencies of the pattern.Wederive general properties of the moiré regarding its symmetry and construct the spatial beating frequency K→moiré as the difference between two reciprocal lattice vectors k→i of the two coinciding lattices. Considering reciprocal lattice vectors kK→i , with lengths of up to ntimes the respective (1, 0) beams of the two lattices, readily increases the number of beating frequencies of the nth-order moiré pattern.Wepredict how many beating frequencies occur in nth-order moirés and show that for one hexagonal lattice rotating above another the involved beating frequencies follow circular trajectories in reciprocal-space. The radius and lateral displacement of such circles are defined by the order n and the ratio x of the two lattice constants. The question of whether the moiré pattern is commensurate or not is addressed by using our derived concept of commensurability plots. When searching potential commensurate phases we introduce a method, which we call cell augmentation, and which avoids the need to consider high-order beating frequencies as discussed using the reported (6 3 6 3 )R30moiré of graphene on SiC(0001).We also show how to apply our model for the characterization of hexagonal moiré phases, found for transition metal-supported graphene and related systems.Weexplicitly treat surface x-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy- and low-energy electron diffraction data to extract the unit cell of commensurate phases or to find evidence for incommensurability. For each data type, analysis strategies are outlined and avoidable pitfalls are discussed.Wealso point out the close relation of spatial beating frequencies in a moiré and multiple scattering in electron diffraction data and show how this fact can be explicitly used to extract high-precision data.

AB - Wereport on strategies forcharacterizing hexagonal coincidence phases by analyzing the involved spatial moiré beating frequencies of the pattern.Wederive general properties of the moiré regarding its symmetry and construct the spatial beating frequency K→moiré as the difference between two reciprocal lattice vectors k→i of the two coinciding lattices. Considering reciprocal lattice vectors kK→i , with lengths of up to ntimes the respective (1, 0) beams of the two lattices, readily increases the number of beating frequencies of the nth-order moiré pattern.Wepredict how many beating frequencies occur in nth-order moirés and show that for one hexagonal lattice rotating above another the involved beating frequencies follow circular trajectories in reciprocal-space. The radius and lateral displacement of such circles are defined by the order n and the ratio x of the two lattice constants. The question of whether the moiré pattern is commensurate or not is addressed by using our derived concept of commensurability plots. When searching potential commensurate phases we introduce a method, which we call cell augmentation, and which avoids the need to consider high-order beating frequencies as discussed using the reported (6 3 6 3 )R30moiré of graphene on SiC(0001).We also show how to apply our model for the characterization of hexagonal moiré phases, found for transition metal-supported graphene and related systems.Weexplicitly treat surface x-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy- and low-energy electron diffraction data to extract the unit cell of commensurate phases or to find evidence for incommensurability. For each data type, analysis strategies are outlined and avoidable pitfalls are discussed.Wealso point out the close relation of spatial beating frequencies in a moiré and multiple scattering in electron diffraction data and show how this fact can be explicitly used to extract high-precision data.

KW - 2-dimensional hexagonal systems

KW - grapheme

KW - low-energy electron diffraction

KW - moiré

KW - scanning tunneling microscopy

KW - x-ray diffraction

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85011373217&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1367-2630/aa53c8

DO - 10.1088/1367-2630/aa53c8

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85011373217

SN - 1367-2630

VL - 19

JO - New Journal of Physics

JF - New Journal of Physics

IS - 1

M1 - 013015

ER -