Implications of Lean 4.0 Methods on Relevant Target Dimensions: Time, Cost, Quality, Employee Involvement, and Flexibility

Fabian Dillinger, Julia Bergermeier, Gunther Reinhart

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Industry 4.0 is expected to provide a framework for coping with the increasing market dynamics and complexity in the highly competitive manufacturing industry. As the holistic approach of Lean Production has been applied in many industries as a standard for several decades, the interdependency of Lean Production and Industry 4.0 plays a crucial role. Thus, combining both paradigms into one integrated approach, commonly known as Lean 4.0, is of high topicality in the academic and industrial environment. However, the effects on target dimensions of Lean 4.0 in a manufacturing system remain unclear. In this scientific contribution, an impact analysis is conducted to measure the implications of Lean 4.0 on relevant target dimensions. The intention is to unhide relevant impacts and support manufacturers' decision-making for reaching aspired objectives. Lean 4.0 use cases are created based on existing literature to assess concrete Lean 4.0 scenarios concerning the identified target dimensions. In expert interviews, following the Delphi study method, the relevant data is collected, in which the participants assess the implications of the use cases on the target dimension. The results show that the implications can highly differentiate depending on the applied Lean Production method and Industry 4.0 technologies. Thus, the choice of Lean methods combined with Industry 4.0 technologies needs to be well aligned with the manufacturer's objectives, and additionally, possible trade-offs must be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202-208
Number of pages7
JournalProcedia CIRP
StatePublished - 2022
Event55th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, CIRP CMS 2022 - Lugano, Switzerland
Duration: 29 Jun 20221 Jul 2022


  • Industry 4.0
  • Key Performance Indicator (KPI)
  • Lean 4.0
  • Lean Management
  • Lean Production
  • Target Dimensions


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