Identifying retrofitting opportunities for federated satellite systems

Rustam Akhtyamov, Rob Vingerhoeds, Alessandro Golkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This paper aims at identifying retrofitting possibilities to incorporate existing spacecraft into a network of federated satellite systems. The paper presents a systematic review of possible retrofitting options, such as direct modifications including replacement and addition of interfaces, and indirect modifications through the addition of intermediary federated negotiators. The paper considers existing frequency regulations for the analysis in the technical domain, but does not take into consideration how complex or time-consuming any legislative changes might be. Although the paper concludes that direct modifications of existing satellites are nonfeasible from a technical point of view, it identifies a possible scenario of retrofitting by adding intermediary negotiator satellites. The link budget for the intersatellite link between an existing satellite mission, such as SPOT-6, and a conceptual satellite negotiator was estimated. The work concludes that from a link budget point of view and existing technology, such a configuration can provide a slant range from several hundred to thousands of kilometers. The work defines models for trade-off analysis identifying correlations between satellite negotiator parameters and the number of covered satellites. The paper concludes proposing several possible satellite negotiator architectures and high-level technical requirements based on analysis of characteristics of existing and planned satellites.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)620-629
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Spacecraft and Rockets
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Identifying retrofitting opportunities for federated satellite systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this