Hydrogen diffusion in creep-resistant 9% Cr P91 multi-layer weld metal

Michael Rhode, Tim Richter, Peter Mayr, Alexander Nitsche, Tobias Mente, Thomas Böllinghaus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Welded components of P91 9% Cr steel demand for careful welding fabrication with necessary post weld heat treatment (PWHT). Before the PWHT, a hydrogen removal heat treatment is necessary for avoidance of hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC). In this context, the microstructure and temperature-dependent hydrogen diffusion is important, and reliable diffusion coefficients of P91 weld metal are rare. For that reason, the diffusion behavior of P91 multi-layer weld metal was investigated for as-welded (AW) and PWHT condition by electrochemical permeation experiments at room temperature and carrier gas hot extraction (CGHE) from 100 to 400 °C. Hydrogen diffusion coefficients were calculated, and the corresponding hydrogen concentration was measured. It was ascertained that both heat treatment conditions show significant differences. At room temperature the AW condition showed significant hydrogen trapping expressed by to seven times lower diffusion coefficients. A preferred diffusion direction was found in perpendicular direction expressed by high permeability. The CGHE experiments revealed lower diffusion coefficients for the AW condition up to 400 °C. In this context, a hydrogen concentration of approximately 21 ml/100 g was still trapped at 100 °C. For that reason, a certain HAC susceptibility of as-welded P91 weld metal cannot be excluded, and hydrogen removal should be done before PWHT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-281
Number of pages15
JournalWelding in the World
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • Creep resisting materials
  • Diffusion
  • Hydrogen embrittlement
  • Microstructure
  • PWHT
  • Weld metal


Dive into the research topics of 'Hydrogen diffusion in creep-resistant 9% Cr P91 multi-layer weld metal'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this