Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Electric Vehicles: An Experimental Analysis of Performance Improvements at Subzero Temperatures

Peter Keil, Matthias Englberger, Andreas Jossen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Electric vehicles based on high-energy lithium-ion batteries often exhibit a substantial loss in performance at subzero temperatures: Due to slower electrochemical kinetics, the internal resistances of the batteries rise and diminish available power and capacity. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) can be used to overcome these weaknesses. In this paper, the performance of two HESSs, combining a high-energy lithium-ion battery with either a high-power lithium-ion battery or a lithium-ion capacitor, has been investigated experimentally for a driving scenario at various temperatures. Both configurations enable driving at -20 °C, which was not possible without hybridization. The HESS using the high-power lithium-ion battery provides a substantially higher driving range due to its higher energy density. An analysis of different operating strategies has helped to maximize the driving range: Discharging the high-energy battery with a constant current and keeping the high-power cell at a higher state of charge (SoC) extend the driving duration, as the requested driving power can still be provided at a lower SoC of the high-energy battery. In addition to the HESSs, two energy storage systems without hybridization, consisting of different generations of high-energy lithium-ion cells, have been examined to disclose improvements in battery technology. These improvements narrow the benefits of HESSs, as the high-energy batteries have become less reliant on the support of an additional high-power device. Although HESSs lose importance for current lithium-ion battery systems, they can be a valuable option for next-generation lithium batteries, which are expected to provide higher energy densities but exhibit reduced rate capability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7287755
Pages (from-to)998-1006
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2016


  • Batteries
  • hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs)
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • lithium-ion capacitors


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