How to Promote Lasting Learning in Schools: Theoretical Approaches and an Agenda for Research

Tobias Richter, Roland Berger, Mirjam Ebersbach, Alexander Eitel, Tino Endres, Rita Borromeo Ferri, Martin Hänze, Andreas Lachner, Detlev Leutner, Frank Lipowsky, Lea Nemeth, Alexander Renkl, Julian Roelle, Ralf Rummer, Katharina Scheiter, Judith Schweppe, Claudia Von Aufschnaiter, Andreas Vorholzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Creating lasting knowledge is an important goal of education. But how much do students retain what they have learned in school beyond the next class assignment? Is school instruction suitable for creating lasting knowledge and skills? And what can teachers do to foster the learning of lasting knowledge? We present a selective overview of research on these questions. The two theoretical strands that deal with lasting learning are meaningful learning and desirable difficulties in learning. We propose combining ideas from these two approaches to develop a comprehensive theoretical account of lasting learning and sketch questions that research should clarify to enable such a theory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-141
Number of pages7
JournalZeitschrift fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • desirable difficulties
  • lasting knowledge
  • long-term retention
  • meaningful learning
  • school learning


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