How should patient decision aids for schizophrenia treatment be designed? - A scoping review

Katharina Müller, Florian Schuster, Alessandro Rodolico, Spyridon Siafis, Stefan Leucht, Johannes Hamann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Despite the clear rationale for applying shared decision-making in the context of the preference sensitive decision for or against antipsychotics and the upswing of patient decision aids (pDAs) to support this process, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding which key features are crucial for pDAs in schizophrenia treatment. A scoping review according to the PRISMA-SRc was conducted to inform on crucial key features and quality indicators. The review focussed on the following seven aspects for investigating pDAs: (1) Types of decision aids, (2) Values, (3) Decision Guidance, (4) Output of the decision aid, (5) Target group, (6) Effectiveness according to publication and (7) Decision aid evaluation. Eleven studies which addressed six unique decision aids met the eligibility criteria. There were major differences in the design as well as in the development of the decision aids. Three aspects emerged that should be given special consideration in the design of such tools for antipsychotics: the evidence used by the decision aid, the algorithm for translating evidence into a decision aid and finally the presentation of the evidence. We recommend the use of data with a high level of evidence and to combine it with individualized treatment by taking into account patient preferences and previous experiences as well as comparing them with clinical assessments. Fully computerized decision aids that use complicated algorithms, for example, by merging treatment effects with patient characteristics to suggest an appropriate treatment at the end, tend to be paternalistic and thus not appropriate for SDM, in our view. In addition, possible cognitive deficits need to be considered when presenting the output of decision aids for antipsychotics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-273
Number of pages13
JournalSchizophrenia Research
StatePublished - May 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Antipsychotics
  • Patient activation
  • Patient decision aids (pDAs)
  • Scoping review
  • Shared decision-making


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