High-Precision Multipath-Based Indoor Localization Scheme With User Privacy Protection for Dynamic NLoS Environments

Alexandra Zayets, Christian Gentner, Eckehard Steinbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


High-precision indoor localization systems (ILSs) are critical for applications such as human smartphone navigation, autonomous robotics and automated warehouse and factory design. This paper presents a novel fingerprinting-based ILS, which features a decimeter-level localization accuracy, the ability to function in a constantly changing non line-of-sight (NLoS) environment, and user privacy protection without the need for heavy computations. The proposed ILS is able to maintain its localization accuracy in a constantly changing environment and to camouflage the user’s location by leveraging multipath propagation. The method was successfully tested both by experimental verification using the ultra-wideband communication standard and a ray-tracing simulation. An average localization error of 6 cm is demonstrated for a stationary or slow-moving receiver. An average error of 30 cm is demonstrated for a receiver that is moving at a fast walking pace. The obtained localization accuracy is comparable to the accuracy of the state-of-the-art localization algorithms. At the same time, the proposed approach solves two practical challenges faced by ILSs: robustness to changing environments with moving objects and the high computation requirements of user privacy protection. The high degree of user privacy was evaluated using a set of corresponding metrics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116033-116049
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021


  • Indoor localization
  • camouflage-based privacy protection
  • multipath fingerprinting


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