Helicobacter bilis Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase Enhances Inflammatory Stress Response via Oxidative Stress in Colon Epithelial Cells

Sundus Javed, Raquel Mejías-Luque, Behnam Kalali, Christian Bolz, Markus Gerhard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Helicobacter bilis (H. bilis) infection is associated with cases of inflammatory bowel Disease, thyphlocolitis, hepatitis and cholecystitis. However, little is known about the bacterial virulence determinants or the molecular mechanisms involved. Recently, H. bilis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (HBgGT) was shown to be a virulence factor decreasing host cell viability. Bacterial gGTs play a key role in synthesis and degradation of glutathione and enables the bacteria to utilize extracellular glutamine and glutathione as sources of glutamate. gGT-mediated loss of cell viability has so far been linked to DNA damage via oxidative stress, but the signaling cascades involved herein have not been described. In this study, we identified enhanced ROS production induced by HBgGT as a central factor involved in the activation of the oxidative stress response cascades, which finally activate CREB, AP-1 and NF-κB in H. bilis infected colon cancer cells. IL-8, an important pro-inflammatory chemokine that is a common downstream target of these transcription factors, was up-regulated upon H. bilis infection in an HBgGT dependent manner. Moreover, the induction of these signaling responses and inflammatory cytokine production in host cells could be linked to HBgGT-mediated glutamine deprivation. This study implicates for the first time HBgGT as an important regulator of signaling cascades regulating inflammation in H. bilis infected host epithelial cells that could be responsible for induction of inflammatory disorders by the bacterium.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere73160
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 23 Aug 2013

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