Guideline for schizophrenia: implementation status and attitude toward an upcoming living guideline

Naiiri Khorikian-Ghazari, Carolin Lorenz, Duygu Güler, Theresa Halms, Astrid Röh, Marisa Flick, Angelika Burschinski, Charline Pielenz, Eva Salveridou-Hof, Thomas Schneider-Axmann, Marco Schneider, Elias Wagner, Peter Falkai, Wolfgang Gaebel, Stefan Leucht, Alkomiet Hasan, Gabriele Gaigl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The implementation status of clinical guidelines is, despite their important role in connecting research with practice, frequently not satisfactory. This study aims to investigate the implementation status of the current German guideline for schizophrenia. Moreover, the attitude toward a living guideline has been explored for the first time by presenting screenshots of the German schizophrenia guideline transferred to a digital living guideline format called MAGICapp. A cross-sectional online survey was performed under the participation of 17 hospitals for psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine in Southern Germany and one professional association for German neurologists and psychiatrists. 439 participants supplied sufficient data for analysis. 309 provided complete data sets. Regarding the current guideline for schizophrenia and key recommendations, a large awareness-to-adherence gap was found. Group comparisons between different professions (caregivers, medical doctors, psychologists/psychotherapists, psychosocial therapists) detected differences in the implementation status showing higher awareness and agreement with the schizophrenia guideline and its key recommendations among medical doctors compared to psychosocial therapists and caregivers. Moreover, we detected differences in the implementation status of the guideline as a whole and its key recommendations between specialist and assistant doctors. The attitude toward an upcoming living guideline was mostly positive, especially among younger healthcare professionals. Our findings confirm an awareness-to-adherence gap, not only for the current schizophrenia guideline in general but also for its key recommendations with apparent differences between professions. Overall, our results show promising positive attitudes toward the living guideline for schizophrenia among healthcare providers, suggesting that a living guideline may be a supportive tool in everyday clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1587-1598
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Guideline implementation
  • Living guideline
  • Schizophrenia


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