Grouping of esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid for hazard assessment

Thomas Colnot, Wolfgang Dekant, Helmut Greim

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review


Hazardous properties of a large number of esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) have been proposed by ECHA to be assessed as a group. We recommend to restrict the grouping approach to short chain esters, i.e. methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben which are very similar in chemical structures, physicochemical properties, toxicokinetics, and hazardous properties. While these parabens show a weak estrogenicity in some in vitro or in vivo screening assays, they do not induce estrogen-receptor-mediated adverse effects in intact animals. Therefore, there is no support regarding classification and labeling of endocrine disruption or reproductive toxicity of these parabens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-575
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of Toxicology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes


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