Greener, Safer and Better Performing Aqueous Binder for Positive Electrode Manufacturing of Sodium Ion Batteries

Ruochen Xu, Venkat Pamidi, Yushu Tang, Stefan Fuchs, Helge S. Stein, Bosubabu Dasari, Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Santosh Behara, Yang Hu, Shivam Trivedi, M. Anji Reddy, Prabeer Barpanda, Maximilian Fichtner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


P2-type cobalt-free MnNi-based layered oxides are promising cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to their high reversible capacity and well chemical stability. However, the phase transformations during repeated (dis)charge steps lead to rapid capacity decay and deteriorated Na+ diffusion kinetics. Moreover, the electrode manufacturing based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) binder system has been reported with severely defluorination issue as well as the energy intensive and expensive process due to the use of toxic and volatile N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent. It calls for designing a sustainable, better performing, and cost-effective binder for positive electrode manufacturing. In this work, we investigated inorganic sodium metasilicate (SMS) as a viable binder in conjunction with P2-Na0.67Mn0.55Ni0.25Fe0.1Ti0.1O2 (NMNFT) cathode material for SIBs. The NMNFT-SMS electrode delivered a superior electrochemical performance compared to carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) and PVDF based electrodes with a reversible capacity of ~161 mAh/g and retaining ~83 % after 200 cycles. Lower cell impedance and faster Na+ diffusion was also observed in this binder system. Meanwhile, with the assistance of TEM technique, SMS is suggested to form a uniform and stable nanoscale layer over the cathode particle surface, protecting the particle from exfoliation/cracking due to electrolyte attack. It effectively maintained the electrode connectivity and suppressed early phase transitions during cycling as confirmed by operando XRD study. With these findings, SMS binder can be proposed as a powerful multifunctional binder to enable positive electrode manufacturing of SIBs and to overall reduce battery manufacturing costs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202301154
Issue number8
StatePublished - 22 Apr 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • aqueous binder
  • in-situ coating
  • layered oxide cathodes
  • sodium metasilicate
  • sodium-ion batteries
  • thermal stability


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