Genetically modified herbicide resistant rapeseed in Germany: A socio-economic assessment

Philipp Wree, Johannes Sauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The cultivation of transgenic rapeseeds is currently banned in Germany. Considering the reversibility, irreversibility and uncertainty in the context of costs and benefits of introducing herbicide-resistance rapeseeds (HR), we determine the maximum incremental social tolerable irreversible costs (MISTICs) of this technology for Germany. Results indicate that banning HR genetically modified rapeseeds is only appropriate if German society values the possible total accumulated irreversible costs (from its introduction until infinity) of this technology as at least € 1.105 billion or € 13.8 per citizen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-253
Number of pages10
JournalGerman Journal of Agricultural Economics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2016


  • Genetically modified organisms
  • Irreversibility
  • Rapeseeds
  • Real option
  • Social costs


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