Genetically encoded voltage indicators in circulation research

Lars Kaestner, Qinghai Tian, Elisabeth Kaiser, Wenying Xian, Andreas Müller, Martin Oberhofer, Sandra Ruppenthal, Daniel Sinnecker, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Atsushi Miyawaki, Alessandra Moretti, Peter Lipp

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21626-21642
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number9
StatePublished - 8 Sep 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Action potential
  • Cardiomyocyte
  • Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVI)
  • Membrane potential


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