Functional Metabolome Analysis of Penicillium roqueforti by Means of Differential Off-Line LC-NMR

Richard Hammerl, Oliver Frank, Tina Schmittnägel, Matthias A. Ehrmann, Thomas Hofmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


UPLC-TOF/MS profiling, followed by the recently reported differential off-line LC-NMR (DOLC-NMR) and quantitative 1 H NMR spectroscopy (qHNMR), led to the differential qualitative analysis and accurate quantitation of l-tryptophan-induced metabolome alterations of Penicillium roqueforti, which is typically used in making blue-mold cheese. Among the 24 metabolites identified, two tetrapeptides, namely, d-Phe-l-Val-d-Val-l-Tyr and d-Phe-l-Val-d-Val-l-Phe, as well as cis-bis(methylthio)silvatin, are reported for the first time as metabolites of P. roqueforti. Antimicrobial activity tests showed strong effects of the catabolic l-tryptophan metabolites 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, and 3-indolacetic acid against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with IC 50 values between 15.6 and 24.0 μg/mL, while roquefortine C and cis-bis(methylthio)silvatin inhibited the growth of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis with IC 50 values between 30.0 and 62.5 μg/mL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5135-5146
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number18
StatePublished - 8 May 2019


  • ERETIC 2
  • NMR bucket table
  • P. roqueforti
  • Penicillium roqueforti
  • differential off-line LC-NMR
  • qHNMR


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