From HMI to HMIs: Towards an HMI framework for automated driving

Klaus Bengler, Michael Rettenmaier, Nicole Fritz, Alexander Feierle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

113 Scopus citations


During automated driving, there is a need for interaction between the automated vehicle (AV) and the passengers inside the vehicle and between the AV and the surrounding road users outside of the car. For this purpose, different types of human machine interfaces (HMIs) are implemented. This paper introduces an HMI framework and describes the different HMI types and the factors influencing their selection and content. The relationship between these HMI types and their influencing factors is also presented in the framework. Moreover, the interrelations of the HMI types are analyzed. Furthermore, we describe how the framework can be used in academia and industry to coordinate research and development activities. With the help of the HMI framework, we identify research gaps in the field of HMI for automated driving to be explored in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number61
JournalInformation (Switzerland)
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • Automated vehicles
  • Communication
  • Framework
  • Human machine interface


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