From consumer values to attributes of natural health products for concentration and cognition: insights from a means-end-chain study

Miriam Eugenia Wolf, Agnes Emberger-Klein, Klaus Menrad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This paper aims to determine, which values guide consumers decision-making on natural health products for concentration and cognition (NHPCC) and how they link to choice-relevant product attributes. The purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of NHPCC consumption choices, which can encourage more consumer-centric product development and positioning. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the means-end chain approach, in-depth laddering interviews with 26 consumers of NHP were conducted in Germany from October to December 2020. Qualitative content analysis was applied and a hierarchical value map over the dominant association was built and analyzed. Findings: Five terminal values were found to be relevant for NHPCC decision-making. The personal focused values security, self-direction and stimulation are via health mainly associated with trust and a conscious decision-making, which is linked to the product attributes of effectiveness, tolerance and declaration. Social focused values of universalism or benevolence guide attention on the attributes of sustainability and regionality. Originality/value: The study contributes to close the knowledge gap concerning the linkages between abstract values and concrete product attributes of NHP through associated consequences. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that analyzed these links for NHPCC, although such products are gaining more interest among companies and consumers. Companies can benefit from the outcomes by developing more consumer-centric product concepts and marketing communication strategies for NHPCC. Due to higher attention on relevant information, consumers’ decision-making could become safer and more conscious.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-166
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing
Issue number1
StatePublished - 15 Feb 2024


  • Concentration and cognition
  • Consumer decision-making
  • Means-end chain
  • Natural health product
  • Values


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