Flavouring group evaluation 419 (FGE.419): 2-methyl-1-(2-(5-(p-tolyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)piperidin-1-yl)butan-1-one

EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF)

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The EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF) was requested to evaluate the safety of 2-methyl-1-(2-(5-(p-tolyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)piperidin-1-yl)butan-1-one [FL-no: 16.134] as a new flavouring substance, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1331/2008. The substance has not been reported to occur naturally and is chemically synthesised. In food, it is intended to be used as a flavouring substance only in chewing gum. The chronic dietary exposure to [FL-no: 16.134] was estimated to be 45 μg/person per day for a 60-kg adult and 28.4 μg/person per day for a 15-kg 3-year-old child. [FL-no: 16.134] did not show genotoxicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test and an in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus assay. Based on the submitted toxicokinetic and metabolism data, it can be predicted that the flavouring substance is metabolised to innocuous products only. The Panel derived a lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose (BMDL) of 0.71 mg/kg bw per day for a 20% increase in the relative thyroid (including parathyroid) weight observed in a 90-day toxicity study in rats. Based on this BMDL, adequate margins of exposure of 887 and 374 could be calculated for adults and children, respectively. The Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for [FL-no: 16.134], when used as a flavouring substance at the estimated level of dietary exposure, based on the intended use and use levels as specified in Appendix B. The Panel further concluded that the combined exposure to [FL-no: 16.134] from its use as a food flavouring substance and from its presence in toothpaste and mouthwash is also not of safety concern.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere8750
JournalEFSA Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024


  • 2-methyl-1-(2-(5-(p-tolyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)piperidin-1-yl)butan-1-one
  • FGE.419
  • FL-no: 16.134


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