Film Formation Kinetics of Polymer Donor and Nonfullerene Acceptor Active Layers During Printing Out of 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene in Ambient Conditions

Xinyu Jiang, Sebastian Grott, Volker Körstgens, Kerstin S. Wienhold, Zerui Li, Jinsheng Zhang, Christopher R. Everett, Matthias Schwartzkopf, Stephan V. Roth, Peter Müller-Buschbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Slot-die coating is a promising upscaling fabrication method to promote commercialization in the field of organic solar cells. Herein, the nonfullerene active layer blend of a conjugated polymer PffBT4T-2OD and a small molecule acceptor EH-IDTBR, which is printed out of the nonhalogenated solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, is studied. The film formation kinetics of the active layer PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR is probed in terms of the temporal evolutions in morphology as well as molecular conformation and aggregation as revealed by in situ grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering and UV–vis spectroscopy during the film printing process. A five-regime mesoscale domain growth process is observed in the active layer from the liquid state to the final dry state. The solvent evaporation-induced domain growth is accompanied with molecular stacking in a distinct J-type aggregation of the acceptor and a slight H-type aggregation of the donor molecules. The printed active layers exhibit an edge-on dominated PffBT4T-2OD and a face-on dominated EH-IDTBR crystallite structure. Compared to the neat PffBT4T-2OD and EH-IDTBR films, in the active layer, the crystallite structure deviates slightly in lattice spacing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2201077
JournalSolar RRL
Volume7
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • in situ GISAXS
  • in situ UV–vis
  • nonfullerene acceptors
  • printing
  • slot-die coating

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