Femtosecond profiling of shaped x-ray pulses

M. C. Hoffmann, I. Grguraš, C. Behrens, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, H. Bromberger, R. Coffee, J. T. Costello, L. F. Dimauro, Y. Ding, G. Doumy, W. Helml, M. Ilchen, R. Kienberger, S. Lee, A. R. Maier, T. Mazza, M. Meyer, M. Messerschmidt, S. SchorbW. Schweinberger, K. Zhang, A. L. Cavalieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Arbitrary manipulation of the temporal and spectral properties of x-ray pulses at free-electron lasers would revolutionize many experimental applications. At the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford National Accelerator Laboratory, the momentum phase-space of the free-electron laser driving electron bunch can be tuned to emit a pair of x-ray pulses with independently variable photon energy and femtosecond delay. However, while accelerator parameters can easily be adjusted to tune the electron bunch phase-space, the final impact of these actuators on the x-ray pulse cannot be predicted with sufficient precision. Furthermore, shot-to-shot instabilities that distort the pulse shape unpredictably cannot be fully suppressed. Therefore, the ability to directly characterize the x-rays is essential to ensure precise and consistent control. In this work, we have generated x-ray pulse pairs via electron bunch shaping and characterized them on a single-shot basis with femtosecond resolution through time-resolved photoelectron streaking spectroscopy. This achievement completes an important step toward future x-ray pulse shaping techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033008
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • THz
  • free electron lasers
  • pulse characterization
  • terahertz
  • timing synchronization
  • ultrafast
  • x-ray


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