Fate of enniatins and beauvericin during the malting and brewing process determined by stable isotope dilution assays

Ling Hu, Martina Gastl, Andrea Linkmeyer, Michael Hess, Michael Rychlik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

The fate of enniatins A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin during the malting and brewing process was investigated. Three batches of barley grains were used as starting material, one was naturally contaminated, two were artificially inoculated with Fusarium fungi. Samples were taken from each key step of the malting and brewing procedure, the levels of the toxins were determined with stable isotope dilution assays using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. Significant increases of the toxins were found during germination of two batches of barley grains, resulting in green malts contamination up to a factor of 3.5 compared to grains before germination. Quantitative PCR analyses of fungal DNA revealed in all batches growth of Fusarium avenaceum during germination. After kilning, only 41-72% of the total amounts of the toxins in green malts remained in kilned malts. In subsequent mashing stage, the toxins in kilned malts predominantly were removed with spent grains. In the final beer, only one batch still contained 74 and 14μg/kg of enniatin B and B1, respectively. Therefore, the carryover of these enniatins from the initial barley to final beer was less than 0.2% with the main amounts remaining in the spent grains and the malt rootlets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-477
Number of pages9
JournalLWT
Volume56
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2014

Keywords

  • Beauvericin
  • Beer
  • Enniatins
  • LC-MS/MS
  • QPCR

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