Extracellular vesicles are key players in mesenchymal stem cells’ dual potential to regenerate and modulate the immune system

Martijn van Griensven, Elizabeth R. Balmayor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

MSCs are used for treatment of inflammatory conditions or for regenerative purposes. MSCs are complete cells and allogenic transplantation is in principle possible, but mostly autologous use is preferred. In recent years, it was discovered that cells secrete extracellular vesicles. These are active budded off vesicles that carry a cargo. The cargo can be miRNA, protein, lipids etc. The extracellular vesicles can be transported through the body and fuse with target cells. Thereby, they influence the phenotype and modulate the disease. The extracellular vesicles have, like the MSCs, immunomodulatory or regenerative capacities. This review will focus on those features of extracellular vesicles and discuss their dual role. Besides the immunomodulation, the regeneration will concentrate on bone, cartilage, tendon, vessels and nerves. Current clinical trials with extracellular vesicles for immunomodulation and regeneration that started in the last five years are highlighted as well. In summary, extracellular vesicles have a great potential as disease modulating entity and treatment. Their dual characteristics need to be taken into account and often are both important for having the best effect.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115203
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Volume207
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bone
  • Cartilage
  • Immunemodulation
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Nerves
  • Regeneration
  • Tendon
  • Therapy
  • Vessels
  • miRNA

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