External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

B. Hallberg, K. Aquilonius, Y. Lechón, H. Cabal, R. M. Sáez, T. Schneider, S. Lepicard, D. Ward, T. Hamacher, R. Korhonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-703
Number of pages5
JournalFusion Engineering and Design
Issue number1-4 SPEC
StatePublished - Sep 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • ExternE
  • External costs
  • Externalities
  • Fusion
  • Recycling
  • SERF


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