Experimental investigation of the failure mechanism of 18650 lithium-ion batteries due to shock and drop

Markus Spielbauer, Philipp Berg, Jonas Soellner, Julia Peters, Florian Schaeufl, Christian Rosenmüller, Oliver Bohlen, Andreas Jossen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

This work presents an experimental investigation of the failure mechanism of 18650 lithium-ion batteries subject to dynamic mechanical loads and the implications of severe damages on the safety function of the current interruptive device (CID), as current literature offers no insight in this topic. First, a conducted shock test series with loads beyond automotive standards showed no distinct impact on various modern cell types in impedance and computed tomography (CT) analysis, while older cell types exhibited signs of damage such as mandrel displacement and increase of ohmic resistance, as had already been reported in literature. A following investigation with acceleration measurements of drops of power tool battery modules revealed that accelerations in some applications can exceed even high load-level standards significantly. In a subsequent test series with axial drop tests in both orientations with various cell types, impact surfaces and states of charge (SOC), multiple cell types exhibited high ohmic failure without a thermal event. Computed Tomography (CT) and Post Mortem analysis revealed that, among various observable damage mechanisms, the predominant failure mechanism is contact loss in the CID region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103213
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Volume43
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • 18650 lithium-ion battery safety
  • Current interruptive device
  • Failure mechanism
  • Mechanical abuse test
  • Shock and drop
  • Vibration

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