Experimental comparison between an optical and an all-metal large bore engine

Stephan Karmann, Stefan Eicheldinger, Maximilian Prager, Malte Jaensch, Georg Wachtmeister

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Rising engine efficiency, increasingly stringent exhaust limits, and the use of synthetic and renewable fuels are all factors that demand a deeper knowledge of the combustion process. State-of-the-art investigations employ optical and laser-optical measurement techniques that rely on having optical access to the engine. In this paper, a new endoscopic system that provides full optical access to a high-speed large-bore engine is compared by thermodynamic experimentation to the equivalent all-metal engine. This comparison provides an insight into the altered combustion behavior resulting from modifying the engine to accommodate the optical elements. The successfully realized concept consists of two individually usable access points integrated in an engine with a bore of 170 mm and a stroke of 210 mm. The lateral endoscopic access is designed for full-load operating conditions and provides the best comparability to an all-metal engine. It is compared directly to the all-metal engine in the present investigations. Despite the changes in engine-out emissions from the optical engine, the experimental results display relatively equal combustion behavior in both setups. The lateral endoscopic access is then extended by adding a fisheye endoscope in place of one exhaust valve. This setup is compared to findings obtained with the endoscopic lateral access. The investigations reveal further deviations of the combustion process due to the more extensive modifications needed to fit the fisheye endoscope to the cylinder head. Nevertheless, the results display an overall good level of comparability of the combustion behaviors in these setups and, in turn, of the validity of further fundamental experiments based on the optical engine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1223-1238
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Engine Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • Optical engine
  • comparison of all-metal and optical engine
  • gas engine
  • large bore engine
  • port fuel injection


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