## Abstract

We investigate the effect that spatially modulated continuous conserved quantities can have on quantum ground states. We do so by introducing a family of one-dimensional local quantum rotor and bosonic models which conserve finite Fourier momenta of the particle number, but not the particle number itself. These correspond to generalizations of the standard Bose-Hubbard model and relate to the physics of Bose surfaces. First, we show that, while having an infinite-dimensional local Hilbert space, such systems feature a nontrivial Hilbert-space fragmentation for momenta incommensurate with the lattice. This is linked to the nature of the conserved quantities having a dense spectrum and provides the first such example. We then characterize the zero-temperature phase diagram for both commensurate and incommensurate momenta. In both cases, analytical and numerical calculations predict a phase transition between a gapped (Mott insulating) and quasi-long-range-order phase; the latter is characterized by a two-species Luttinger liquid in the infrared but dressed by oscillatory contributions when computing microscopic expectation values. Following a rigorous Villain formulation of the corresponding rotor model, we derive a dual description, from where we estimate the robustness of this phase using renormalization-group arguments, where the driving perturbation has ultralocal correlations in space but power-law correlations in time. We support this conclusion using an equivalent representation of the system as a two-dimensional vortex gas with modulated Coulomb interactions within a fixed symmetry sector. We conjecture that a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type transition is driven by the unbinding of vortices along the temporal direction.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 014406 |

Journal | Physical Review B |

Volume | 109 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Jan 2024 |