Epidemiology of 7375 children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Germany, reported via a prospective, nationwide surveillance study in 2020–2022

Maren Doenhardt, Markus Hufnagel, Natalie Diffloth, Johannes Hübner, René Mauer, Dominik T. Schneider, Arne Simon, Tobias Tenenbaum, Andreas Trotter, Jakob Armann, Reinhard Berner, Aischa Abuleed, Michal Achenbach, Grazyna Adamiak-Brych, Martina Aderhold, Sandra Akanbi, Madaa Akmeinasi, Norbert Albers, Louisa Ammann-Schnell, Kristin AndersTheresa Andree, Judith Anhalt, Nils Apel, Stefan Arens, Christoph Aring, Caroline Armbruster, Inken Arnold, Thomas Austgen, Igor Bachmat, Lena Balles, Arne Baltaci, Theresa Baranowski, Sylvia Barth, Stefan Barth, María Paula Bateman Castrillón, Susanne Baumann, Lisa Baumbach, Boris Becker, Angelina Beer, Gerald Beier, Christiane Bell, Antigoni Bellou, Stephanie Bentz, Josephine Berens, Elisabeth Berger, Simon Berzel, Julia Bley, Helga Blumberg, Stefanie Blume, Kai Böckenholt, Andreas Böckmann, Sebastian Bode, Julie Boever, Leonie Böhm, Henning Böhme, Carsten Bölke, Monika Maria Borchers, Hans Martin Bosse, Michael Böswald, Katharina Botschen, Franka Böttger, Sandra Braun, Britta Brenner, Folke Brinkmann, Beate Bruggmoser, Jürgen Brunner, Florian L. Bucher, Laura Buchtala, Jörg Budde, Reinhard Bullmann, Bernhard Bungert, Dorothea Büsdorf, Lisa Cardellini, Chiara Cattaneo, Cho Ming Chao, Laura Chaparro, Claus Christians, Kerstin Cremer, Gordana Cvetanovic, Alina Czwienzek, Madura Daluwatta, Gideon de Sousa, Metin Degirmenci, Fenja Dejas, Janne Deutschmann, Ute Deutz, Iryna Dobrianska, Katharina Döhring, Helena Donath, Arne Dresen, Svenja Dreßen, Melissa Drozdek, Jens Dubenhorst, Max Dunker, Heinrich Eberhardt, Franziska Ebert, Hannah Echelmeyer, Kerstin Ehrentraut, Christoph Ehrsam, Thea Angelika Eichelmann, Hanna Ellmann, Matthias Endmann, Stefanie Endres, Elisa Endres, Matthias Engler, Denise Engler, David Eppler, Oxana Erbe, Michael Erdmann, Annika Esser, Stephan Ewest, Philipp Falderbaum, Lena Faßbender, Simone Ferber, Andreas Fiedler, Magdalena Fischer, Doris Fischer, Elisabeth Fischer-Ging, Isabel Fischer-Schmidt, Ann Sophie Fleischer, Simon Flümann, Denise Focke, Svenja Foth, Réka Fövényesi, Svenja Frank, Christian Fremerey, Holger Frenzke, Peter Freudenberg, Mirjam Freudenhammer, Christina Fritsch, Stefanie Frohn, Sylvia Fuhrmann, Veronika Galajda Pavlíková, Lukas Galow, Monika Gappa, Sabine Gärtner, Hanga Gaspar, Swen Geerken, Julia Gehm, Fabienne Gehrlein, Norbert Geier, Bernd Geißlreiter, Martin Geltinger, Marieke Gerlach, Hubert Gerleve, Carl Germann, Verena Giesen, Anna Girrbach, Katharina Glas, Lena Goetz, Karoline Goj, Christin Goldhardt, Julia Gottschalk, Jan Felix Gottschlich, Oliver Götz, Katrin Gröger, Sina Gronwald, Anja Große Lordemann, Anneke Grotheer, Kathrin Gruber, Judith Grüner, Mike Grünwedel, Lisa Gu, Joya Gummersbach, Stephan Haag, Silke Haag, Yasmin Hagel, Swantje Hagemann, Ina Hainmann, Nikolaus Halwas, Christof Hanke, Jonas Härtner, Caroline Haselier, Anne Haupt, Marie Kristin Heffels, Solvej Heidtmann, Anna Lena Heimer, Christina Heinrich, Annika Heinrich, Lutz Hempel, Christoph Hempel, Silke Hennig, Carolin Herbst, Leonie Herholz, Matthias Hermann, Jan Simon Hermens, Marc Hertel, Matthias Herzog, Georg Heubner, Julia Hildebrandt, Kai Alexandra Hilker, Georg Hillebrand, Matthias Himpel, Claudia Hirschhausen, Meike Höfer, Liane Hoffmann, Hans Georg Hoffmann, Mirjam Höfgen, Nina Hofknecht, Anja Hofmann, Franziska Hofmann, Katharina Holtkamp, Mona Holzinger, Anneke Homburg, Thomas Hoppen, Theresa Horst, Andor Attila Horváth, Markus Hummler, Patrick Hundsdörfer, Dieter Hüseman, Conny Huster, Nora Ido, Phryne Ioannou, Simone Jedwilayties, Nils Jonas, Cornelia Junge, Linda Junghanns, Attila Kádár, Mohammad Kaddour, Lea Kahlenberg, Lukas Kaiser, Petra Kaiser-Labusch, Hermann Kalhoff, Carola Kaltenhauser, Elke Kaluza, Wolfgang Kamin, Cecil Varna Kanann, Marcus Kania, Cecil Varna Kannan, Subha Kanneettukandathil, Hendrik Karpinski, Fabian Kassbeger, Katja Kauertz, Alexandra Kavvalou, Svetlana Kelzon, Immo Kern, Elisabeth Kernen, Mandy Kersten, Marie Sophie Keßner, Daniel Kever, Carolin Khakzar, Johanna Kim, Linda Kirner, Martin Kirschstein, Natalie Kiss, Richard Kitz, Christine Kleff, Deborah Klein, Leah Bernadette Klingel, Christof Kluthe, Jan Knechtel, Marcel Kneißle, Felix Knirsch, Robin Kobbe, Annemarie Köbsch, Luisa Kohlen, Christina Kohlhauser-Vollmuth, Malte Kohns Vasconcelos, Anne Königs, Florian Konrad, Sabrina Koop, Julia Kopka, Vanessa Kornherr, Anna Lena Kortenbusch, Robert Kosteczka, Holger Köster, Sascha Kowski, Hanna Kravets, Ewa Krink, Maren Krogh, Rebecca Kuglin, Reinhard Kühl, Alena Kuhlmann, Lea Maria Küpper-Tetzel, Marion Kuska, Sachiko Kwaschnowitz, Martina Lange, Franziska Lankes, Julia Laubenbacher, Gerrit Lautner, Thanh Tung Le, Verena Leykamm, Hanna Libuschewski, Lissy Lichtenstein, Nadine Lienert, Johannes Liese, Ulla Lieser, Ilona Lindl, Torben Lindner, Grischa Lischetzki, Matthias Lohr, Norbert Lorenz, Niko Lorenzen, Meike Löwe, Daniela Lubitz, Maria Lueg, Lisa Luft, Sa Luo, Dominik Lwowsky, Kathrin Machon, Katharina Magin, Thomas Maiberger, Nadine Mand, Andrea Markowsky, Wiebke Maurer, Maximilian Mauritz, Theresa Meinhold, Jochen Meister, Melanie Menden, Veronika Messer, Jochen Meyburg, Ulf Meyer, Meike Meyer, Jens Meyer, Lars Meyer-Dobkowitz, Peter Michel, Marko Mohorovicic, Laura Gabriela Moise, Katharina Mönch, Mathieu Monnheimer, Yvonne Morawski, Anja Morgenbrod, Katrin Moritz, David Muhmann, Barbara Müksch, Stefanie Müller, Celina Müller, Annemarie Müller, Viola Müller, Yvonne Müller, Guido Müller, Kathleen Müller-Franz, Lutz Naehrlich, Katharina Naghed, Nicole Näther, Tereza Nespor, Tatjana Neuhierl, Ann Cathrine Neukamm, Nam Nguyen, Dirk Nielsen, Klaus Niethammer, Lydia Obernosterer, Bernd Opgen-Rhein, Iris Östreicher, Esra Özdemir, Nadejda Paduraru-Stoian, Monique Palm, Laura Parigger, Nina Pellmann, Theresa Pelster, Ardina Pengu, Falk Pentek, Maurice Petrasch, Antonia Maximina Pfennigs, Aaron Pfisterer, Anne Pfülb, Lisa Piehler, Ursula Pindur, Markus Pingel, Eva Pitsikoulis, Jana Plutowski, Wendy Poot, Silvia Poralla, Johanna Pottiez, Simone Pötzsch, Pablo Pretzel, Clarissa Preuß, Sven Propson, Kateryna Puhachova, Daniela Pütz, Samina Quadri-Niazi, Bernhard Queisser, Jennifer Rambow, Gunnar Rau, Cornelius Rau, Jacqueline Raum, Heike Reck, Victoria Rehmann, Friedrich Reichert, Thomas Reinhardt, Carla Remy, Hanna Renk, Annika Richard, Carolin Richter, Nikolaus Rieber, Sebastian Riedhammer, Hannelore Ringe, Bianca Rippberger, Moritz Rohrbach, Bettina Rokonal, Caroline Rötger, Anne Rothermel, Ricarda Rox, Alexander Rühlmann, Marie Cecile Ryckmanns, Shahane Safarova, Meila Salem, Demet Sarial, Helena Sartor, Johanna Saxe, Herbert Schade, Miriam Schäfer, Cecilia Scheffler, Lena Brigitte Scheffler, Marija Scheiermann, Sandra Schiele, Katja Schierloh, Markus Schiller, Benjamin Schiller, Ruth Schilling, Christof Schitke, Christian Schlabach, Theresa Schlichting, Christian Schlick, Christina Schlingschröder, Florian Schmid, Bastian Schmidt, Josephine Schneider, Dominik Schneider, Hans Christoph Schneider, Alexander Schnelke, Axel Schobeß, Lothar Schrod, Arne Schröder, Sophia Schröder, Theresia Schug, Christopher Schulze, Katharina Schuster, Katharina Schütz, Valeria Schwägerl, Christoffer Seidel, Christina Seidel, Sabrina Seidel, Josephin Seidel, Katrin Seringhaus-Förster, Armin Setzer, Ralf Seul, Wael Shabanah, M. Ghiath Shamdeen, Sebastian Sigl, Isabel Simon, Christina Solomou, Ezgi Sönmez, Lisa Spath, Marco Spehl, Thomas Stanjek, Daniel Staude, Janina Steenblock, Sandro Stehle, Michael Steidl, Benedikt Steif, Detlef Stein, Franziska Stein, Mathis Steindor, Frank Stemberg, Susanne Stephan, Astrid Stienen, Antje Stockmann, Ursula Strier, Heidi Ströle, Roman Szudarek, Van Hop Ta, Kader Tan, Rebecca Telaar, Anna Telschow, Lisa Teufel, Stephanie Thein, Lion Gabriel Thiel, Lisa Thiesing, Linda Thomas, Julian Thomas, Christian Timke, Irmgard Toni, Melcan Topuz, Stefanie Trau, Eva Tschiedel, Sinty Tzimou, Felix Uhlemann, Torsten Uhlig, Lieser Ulla, Bartholomäus Urgatz, Nicolaus v. Salis, Sascha v. Soldenhoff, Louisa van Bahlen, Alijda Ingeborg van den Heuvel, Kai Vehse, Rebecca Veit, Joshua Verleysdonk, Andreas Viechtbauer, Simon Vieth, Markus Vogel, Sophia von Blomberg, Kira von der Decken, Christian von Schnakenburg, Julia Wagner, Tatjana Wahjudi, Karin Waldecker, Ulrike Walden, Ulrike Walther, Mona Walther, Christine Wegendt, Götz Wehl, Stefan Weichert, Judith Anne Weiland, Julia Weiß, Laura Wendt, Vera Wentzel, Cornelia Wersal, Ulrike Wetzel, Barbara Wichmann, Katharina Wickert, Sandra Wieland, Christiane Maria Wiethoff, Hanna Wietz, Florian Wild, Rainer Willing, Christian Windischmann, Verena Winkeler, Merle Winkelmann, Sascha Winkler, Laura Wißlicen, Isabel Wormit-Frenzel, Tobias Wowra, Andreas Wroblewski, Dominik Wulf, Donald Wurm, Malin Zaddach, Julia Zahn, Kai Zbieranek, Lara Sophie Zehnder, Anne Zeller, Martin Zellerhoff, Katharina Zerlik, Johanna Zimmermann, Mária Zimolová, Ulrich Zügge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

By means of a nationwide, prospective, multicenter, observational cohort registry collecting data on 7375 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 admitted to children's hospitals in Germany, March 2020–November 2022, our study assessed the clinical features of children and adolescents hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2, evaluated which of these patients might be at highest risk for severe COVID-19, and identified underlying risk factors. Outcomes tracked included: symptomatic infection, case fatality, sequelae at discharge and severe disease. Among reported cases, median age was one year, with 42% being infants. Half were admitted for reasons other than SARS-CoV-2. In 27%, preexisting comorbidities were present, most frequently obesity, neurological/neuromuscular disorders, premature birth, and respiratory, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal diseases. 3.0% of cases were admitted to ICU, but ICU admission rates varied as different SARS-CoV-2 variants gained prevalence. Main risk factors linked to ICU admission due to COVID-19 were: patient age (> 12 and 1–4 years old), obesity, neurological/neuromuscular diseases, Trisomy 21 or other genetic syndromes, and coinfections at time of hospitalization. With Omicron, the group at highest risk shifted to 1–4-year-olds. For both health care providers and the general public, understanding risk factors for severe disease is critical to informing decisions about risk-reduction measures, including vaccination and masking guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number47
JournalScientific Reports
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2024
Externally publishedYes

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