Kurt Ulm, Kurt Straif

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The evaluation of exposure is still one of the weak points of epidemiological studies. In occupational medicine, data for the concentrations of hazardous substances in the air are often lacking. The exposure levels are, therefore, estimated. A consequence of this imprecise evaluation of the exposure is the reduced correlation between the dose and the effects. Another problem is the adequate description of the exposure using a suitable parameter. The evaluation of the external exposure by means of biological monitoring has, at least in some situations, brought about an improvement. But even here it must be decided which sampling times are appropriate and which parameters for the exposure levels must be defined. Examples are presented below.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiological Monitoring
Subtitle of host publicationProspects in Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9783527621026
ISBN (Print)3527277951, 9783527277957
StatePublished - 26 Feb 2008
Externally publishedYes


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