Effect of PETTLEP imagery training on learning of new skills in novice volleyball players

Mohsen Afrouzeh, Mehdi Sohrabi, Hamid Reza Taheri Torbati, Farshad Gorgin, Cliff Mallett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This study conducted to compare the effects of (a) physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environmental, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspectie; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery, and (b) physical practice with traditional imagery interventions, on new skill learning in novice volleyball players. Thirty six novice male volleyball players (Mage = 13.2 years, SD = 0.53 years) with 6-8 months practice experience were randomly assigned to one of three groups: physical practice + PETTLEP imagery (n = 12), physical practice + traditional imagery (n = 12), and physical practice only (control group; n = 12). Participants in the PETTLEP imagery group applied the seven components of PETTLEP imagery training; whereas participants in the traditional imagery group engaged in a relaxation session before imagery and used response laden motor imagery scripts. The two groups completed 15 minutes of imagery training followed immediately by thirteen minutes of "passing" practice three times per week. The control group completed only thirteen minutes of "passing" practice three times per week. Each group performed their respective tasks for seven weeks. A pre-test took place during the first practice session in which "passing" was assessed. After the seven-week practice program, a post-test took place followed by a retention test, one "no-practice" week later. All groups improved significantly (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-test and retention test. Nevertheless, as hypothesised the PETTLEP group improved more (p < 0.05) than the traditional imagery and physical practice groups. The findings, therefore, support the effectiveness of PETTLEP in enhancing learning and performance of new skill when combined with physical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-238
Number of pages8
JournalLife Science Journal
Issue numberSUPPL.1
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Functional equivalence
  • Kinaesthetic imagery intervention
  • Learning and performance


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