Effect of Endogenous and Exogenous Factors on the Primary Structures of Bacterial Peptidoglycan

K. H. Schleifer, W. P. Hammes, O. Kandler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The chapter focuses on the assemble data, showing to what extent the primary structure of the peptidoglycan may change because of the effects of endogenous and exogenous factors. The chapter discusses the effects of endogenous factors such as (1) growth phase, (2) peptidoglycan structures of vegetative cell walls compared with the spore cortex, (2) changes in the peptidoglycan structure during a morphological life cycle, (4) genetic variations of the peptidoglycan structure. All of the alterations in the amino-acid sequence of peptidoglycan discussed so far are either insignificant or have been caused by unusual conditions such as growth inhibition or growth in unbalanced medium. More pronounced differences in the peptidoglycan under normal growth conditions, however, were found in bacilli during the transition from vegetative cell to endospore. In contrast to the peptidoglycan of vegetative cells, that of the spore cortex contains muramic lactam and exhibits a considerably lower degree of cross linkage. The chapter also discusses effects of exogenous factors such as (1) aerobic and anaerobic growth, (2) amino-acid composition of the growth medium, (3) ionic environment, (4) osmotic value of the growth medium, (5) antibiotics, and (6) growth-inhibiting concentrations of glycine and amino acids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-292
Number of pages48
JournalAdvances in Microbial Physiology
Issue numberC
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1976
Externally publishedYes


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