Do We Still Need Non-Maximum Suppression? Accurate Confidence Estimates and Implicit Duplication Modeling with IoU-Aware Calibration

Johannes Gilg, Torben Teepe, Fabian Herzog, Philipp Wolters, Gerhard Rigoll

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

Abstract

Object detectors are at the heart of many semi- and fully autonomous decision systems and are poised to become even more indispensable. They are, however, still lacking in accessibility and can sometimes produce unreliable predictions. Especially concerning in this regard are the - essentially hand-crafted - non-maximum suppression algorithms that lead to an obfuscated prediction process and biased confidence estimates. We show that we can eliminate classic NMS-style post-processing by using IoU-aware calibration. IoU-aware calibration is a conditional Beta calibration; this makes it parallelizable with no hyper-parameters. Instead of arbitrary cutoffs or discounts, it implicitly accounts for the likelihood of each detection being a duplicate and adjusts the confidence score accordingly, resulting in empirically based precision estimates for each detection. Our extensive experiments on diverse detection architectures show that the proposed IoU-aware calibration can successfully model duplicate detections and improve calibration. Compared to the standard sequential NMS and calibration approach, our joint modeling can deliver performance gains over the best NMS-based alternative while producing consistently better-calibrated confidence predictions with less complexity. The code for all our experiments is publicly available https://github.com/Blueblue4/IoU-AwareCalibration.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2024 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, WACV 2024
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages4838-4847
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9798350318920
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024
Event2024 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, WACV 2024 - Waikoloa, United States
Duration: 4 Jan 20248 Jan 2024

Publication series

NameProceedings - 2024 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, WACV 2024

Conference

Conference2024 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, WACV 2024
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityWaikoloa
Period4/01/248/01/24

Keywords

  • Algorithms
  • Algorithms
  • Explainable
  • Image recognition and understanding
  • accountable
  • ethical computer vision
  • fair
  • privacy-preserving

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